Students start studying movement by moving themselves and then find out what it takes to start moving, stop moving, an change direction. Next, students are challenged to design and build a toy vehicle that can roll down a ramp. Finally, they explore gravity and design a toy that keeps gravity from winning - for a while. There are several options for assessing your students’ understanding of each lesson. Each lesson ends with a rubric that you can use to assess your students’ work during class and what they record in their Student Booklet.

There are also two versions of formal written assessments included. These can be used as pre/post tests, practice tests, or review. These assessments test your students on the standards covered, not necessarily what they did during the lesson. That way, you can use them to help students connect what they’ve done with questions that might appear on a standards-based test.

#### Lesson 1: Moving Me

## Lesson 1 - Moving Me

OBJECTIVE

Students use their bodies to explore the concepts of movement and force.

AAAS BENCHMARKS COVERED*

A model of something is different from the real thing but can be used to learn something about the real thing.Things move in many different ways, such as straight, zigzag, round and round, back and forth, and fast and slow.The way to change how something is moving is to give it a push or a pull. Things in nature and things people make have very different sizes, weights, ages, and speeds. Describe and compare things in terms of number, shape, texture, size, weight, color, and motion. Ask “How do you know?” in appropriate situations and attempt reasonable answers when others ask them the same question.

NGSS STANDARDS COVERED: K-PS2-1; 3-PS2-2

COMMON CORE ELA STANDARDS COVERED:

Moving Me 1, 2 & 3 worksheets (This lesson is best done where students have plenty of room.Students will explore the different ways to move as instructed (up and down, fast and slow, zig-zag etc.) Discuss that it takes energy to move; once you start moving it is difficult to stop (like running on a slick floor with socks on or ice); have students offer their own observations: Instruct students to cut out the “Moving Around” pictures and glue them in the appropriate boxes on worksheets 2 & 3; worksheet 1 asks students to follow the path from the picture on the left to correctly identified sport on the right) — 1.SL.1a: Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion); 1.SL.1b: Build on others’ talk in conversations by responding to the comments of others through multiple exchanges; 1.SL.1c: Ask questions to clear up any confusion about the topics and texts under discussion;1.SL.5: Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.

“Rosie’s Day at the Playground” story and questions – 1.RL.1: Ask and answer questions about key details in a text; 1.RL.3: Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details; 1.RL.10: With prompting and support, read prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for grade 1; 1.RF.4: Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension; 1.RF.4a: Read on-level text with purpose and understanding; 1.L.4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 1 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.

“Play” poem and questions: 1.RI.1: Ask and answer questions about key details in a text; 1.RI.3: Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text; 1.RI.10: Withprompting and support, read informational texts appropriately complex for grade 1; 1.RF.4, 1.RF.4a, 1.L.4:(see above); 1.W.8: With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.Vocabulary – 1.L.4: (see above).

COMMON CORE MATH STANDARDS COVERED:

Moving Me 1 , 2 & 3 worksheets: Mathematical Practices 2, 3, 7 ,8

Number Line Addition worksheet: 1.OA.5: Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on2 to add 2); 1.OA.8: Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 + ? = 11, 5 = – 3, 6 + 6 =.

Lesson Outline

This lesson should be done outside with plenty of room.

Explain that students are going to explore different ways of moving around. Define the area in which they are to remain.

Have students run slowly, walk very fast, hop slowly, hop fast on one leg, and skip slowly.

Discuss which were easy and which were more difficult.

Explain that you are going to blow a whistle, tell them how to move, and then say,"Go!"

On "Go" they are to start moving that way. When you blow the whistle again they are to stop IMMEDIATELY.

Have children move:

slowly

fast

in a straight line

in a big circle

turning around zig-zag

slowly

backwards

sideways

skipping

hopping

jumping

tiny steps

giant steps

Gather students in a group and discuss what it felt like to move in these ways and then stop quickly. Have individual children model several of the motions.

Discuss what it took to get started running fast (Used their energy to push down on the ground with their feet. Relate to trying to start running on a slippery floor with socks on or on ice.)

Discuss what happened when they tried to stop fast. (They might have bent over or fallen down.) Explain that once things get moving, it may be hard to stop them. (Relate to stopping on ice or on a slippery floor.) Discuss what happened when they moved in a zig-zag way. Discuss that it was difficult to change direction quickly.

If possible, go to the playground and explore pushing and pulling on the swing and other equipment.

Back inside the class, give students Slower/Faster worksheets and allow them to work together to decide how the images should be ordered. Students should cut the pictures out and glue them on Student Booklet pages 2 and 3.

Students who finish early can follow the paths and match the sport with the word on Student Booklet page 1 or work on the Marble Challenge in the Science Comer.

#### Lesson 2: Moving Things

## Lesson 2 - Moving Things

OBJECTIVE

Students explore the forces required to make things move, change direction, change speed, and stop.

AAAS BENCHMARKS COVERED*

Things move in many different ways, such as straight, zigzag, round and round, back and forth, and fast and slowly. The way to change how something is moving is to give it a push or a pull. Describe and compare things in terms of number, shape, texture, size, weight, color, and motion. Draw pictures that correctly portray at least some features of the thing being described. Ask “How do you know?” in appropriate situations and attempt reasonable answers when others ask them thesame question.

NGSS STANDARDS COVERED: K-PS2-2; 3-PS2-2

COMMON CORE ELA STANDARDS COVERED:

Moving Things 1 & 2 worksheets (Tie a rope onto the bin, add books or other heavy objects to increase the weight and then ask students to describe how you might move such a heavy object.Write the verbs they use on the board (push , pull, shove etc.) Discuss that each of these actions uses energy. Introduce the idea that energy makes things happen. Give one type of ball to each pair of students challenging them to Find as many ways as possible to move the balls; have them record their ideas on their worksheets) — 1.SL.1: Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups; 1.SL.1a, 1.SL.1b, 1.SL.1c: (see above); 1.SL.4: Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly; 1.SL.5, 1.W.8: (see above).

Moving Things 3 worksheet (Discuss how dierent sports start balls moving, change their direction, and stop movement; then have students complete the worksheet based on their comments and observations) —1.SL.1, 1.SL.1a, 1.SL.1b, 1.SL.1c, 1.SL.4, 1.W.8: (see above).

“The Bat “ story and questions — 1.RL.1, 1.RL.3: (see above); 1.RL.5: Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types;1.RF.4, 1.RF.4a: (see above).

COMMON CORE MATH STANDARDS COVERED:

“MovingThings 1, 2 & 3 worksheets — Mathematical Practices 1, 2, 3, 8

Ten Frames worksheet — 1.OA.6: Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating Fluency for addition and sub-traction within 10.Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13); 1.NBT.2: Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones.Understand the following as special cases; 1.NBT.2a: 10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones — called a “ten.”; 1.NBT.2b: The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.

Lesson Outline

Tie the rope onto the bin. Add books or other heavy objects to make the bin heavy.

Ask students to describe how you might move the heavy bin. Write the verbs they use on the board (e.g., push, pull, shove, tug).

Discuss that each of these actions uses energy. Introduce the idea that energy makes things happen.

Give one of each type of ball to each pair of students.

Challenge them to find as many ways as possible to move the balls from one place to another. If possible, have them record their ideas on Student Booklet pages 4 and 5.

Instruct students to try the same methods on both balls and compare how they worked.

Discuss their solutions and that it took energy to make the balls start moving. Compare each of the methods. Did some methods work only with one kind of ball? Which methods required other materials? Which made the ball move the fastest? Which made the ball move in a straight line? Which made the ball roll in a crooked path?

Challenge them to roll the ball and make it change direction without touching it. Encourage students to think of as many ways to change the direction of the ball as possible.

Discuss their solutions and that it took energy to change the direction of the ball.

Continue challenging, discussing, and explaining how to make a ball change its speed (i.e., slow down, speed up, and stop) without touching it.

Discuss how different sports start balls moving, change their direction, and stop movement. Have students complete Student Booklet page 6 individually or as a group.When students finish, they may want to work on the Balls Challenge in the Science Corner.

#### Lesson 3: Gravity

## Lesson 3 - Gravity

OBJECTIVE

Students explore the force needed to resist gravity and how to use gravity for fun.

AAAS BENCHMARKS COVERED*

Objects can be described in terms of the materials they are made of (clay, cloth, paper, etc.) and their physical properties (color, size, shape, weight, texture, flexibility, etc.). Things can be done to materials to change some of their properties, but not all materials respond the same way to what is done to them.Things move in many different ways, such as straight, zigzag, round and round, back and forth, and fast and slow.The way to change how something is moving is to give it a push or a pull.Things near the earth fall to the ground unless something holds them up.

COMMON CORE ELA STANDARDS COVERED:

Gravity 1 worksheet (Discuss what made the balls move and why they stopped. Introduce the ‘zoomer toy“they will be making and playing with (small pipe and strings) - observing what actions make it work best.Demonstrate the concept of gravity using classroom items; allow students to use bubbles to demonstrateother ways of resisting gravity (blowing on them with straws, etc.); engage students in a discussion about gravity and explain that it takes energy to hold things up and to resist gravity ; discuss how each vehicle pictured on the worksheet resists gravity and where the vehicle belongs – (pictured in the opposite column) –1.SL.1, 1.SL.1a, 1.SL.1b, 1.SL.1c, 1.SL.5: (see above).

Gravity 2 worksheet (Show students theVehicle Design materials and cardboard ramps and challenge themto make something that will roll down the ramp ; explain that today they can experiment with the materials,discuss design ideas and take note of the results of positioning the ramp at dierent angles then completethe worksheet) – 1.SL.1, 1.SL.1a, 1.SL.1b, 1.SL.1c, 1.SL.5: (see above).

“Bubble Boy” story and questions – 1.RL.1, 1.RL.2, 1.RF.4, 1.RF.4a, 1.L.4: (see above).Vocabulary – 1.L.4: (see above).

COMMON CORE MATH STANDARDS COVERED:

Gravity worksheets 1 & 2 worksheets – Mathematical Practices 2, 7, 8

Add with Dominoes worksheet – 1.OA.3: Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract.2

Examples: If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 = 11 is also known. (Commutative property of addition.)To add 2 +6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12. (Associative property of addition.); 1.OA.5: (see above).

Lesson Outline

Discuss what made the balls move and why they stopped.Introduce the zoomer toy.

Demonstrate gravity using common classroom items.

Explain that gravity pulls everything toward the center of the Earth.

Demonstrate and discuss that it takes energy to hold things up or move them up against gravity.

Allow students to use bubbles to demonstrate other ways of resisting gravity.

Explain that gravity and energy can make fun toys.

Show students the Vehicle Design Materials and cardboard ramps.Challenge them to make something that will roll down the ramp.

Explain that today they can experiment with the materials and that during the next lesson they will build their vehicle, draw a picture of it in their Student Booklets, and test it on the ramps.

When students are finished making a plan for their vehicle, allow them to try the Dominoes Challenge or use the dominoes to play Dueling Dominoes (see page 42).

#### Lessons 4: Vehicle Design Lab

## Lesson 4 -Vehicle Design Lab

OBJECTIVE

Students design, test, and build a rolling vehicle.

AAAS BENCHMARKS COVERED*

Some kinds of materials are better than others for making any particular thing. Materials that are better in someways (such as stronger or cheaper) may be worse in other ways (heavier or harder to cut). Several steps are usually involved in making things.Tools are used to help make things, and some things cannot be made at all without tools. Each kind of tool has a special purpose. Some materials can be used over again.

Raise questions about the world around them and be willing to seek answers to some of them by making careful observations and trying things out.Make something out of paper, cardboard, wood, plastic, metal, or existing objects that can actually be used to perform a task. Describe and compare things in terms of number, shape, texture, size, weight, color, and motion. Draw pictures that correctly portray at least some features of the thing being described.

NGSS STANDARDS COVERED: 2-PS1-3

COMMON CORE ELA STANDARDS COVERED:

Match the Tool with the Job worksheet (Discuss the tools and jobs they are designed to do, focusing on what features make certain tools the right ones for specific tasks and then assign the worksheet) —1.SL.1,1.SL.1a, 1.SL.1b, 1.SL.1c, 1.SL.5: (see above).

Vehicle Design worksheets 1 & 2 (Discuss the engineering process for vehicles stressing that testing and redesigning are important steps. Explain that their task is to build a vehicle that will roll down a ramp;discuss the importance of testing their vehicle as they go along; make the cardboard ramps available for testing; use the worksheets to record both their design and the results of their tests and and a drawn picture of their final design) – 1.SL.1, 1.SL.1a, 1.SL.1b, 1.SL.1c, 1.SL.5: (see above).

“JunkArt” poem and questions – 1.RL.1: (see above); 1.RL.7: Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events; 1.RF.4, 1.RF.4a: (see above); 1.W.3: Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.Vocabulary – 1.L.4: (see above).

COMMON CORE MATH STANDARDS COVERED:“Vehicle Design worksheets 1 & 2” worksheets — Mathematical Practices 1 thru 8

“Number Line Subtraction” — 1.OA.4: Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. For example, subtract 10 – 8 by Finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8; 1.OA.5, 1.OA.6, 1.OA.8: (see above).

Lesson Outline

Discuss the engineering process for vehicles. Stress that testing and redesigning are important steps.

Review the tools on the inside cover of their Student Booklet. Discuss the relationship between the job and the materials used to make the tool.

Allow students to work on their vehicle design. Make the cardboard ramps available for testing. To encourage students to make sketches of their design as they go along, allow them to test their vehicle only if they can show you that they have made a sketch of it.

When students have a design they are happy with, have them sketch it on the last page in their Student Booklets. Help them label the parts of their vehicle.

Students who finish early can work on the challenges in the Science Corner.

#### Lesson 5: Designer Showcase

Lesson 5 - Designer Showcase

OBJECTIVE

Students display their vehicles and design a toy that resists gravity.

AAAS BENCHMARKS COVERED*

People can often learn about things around them by just observing those things carefully, but sometimes they can learn more by doing something to the things and noting what happens. Everybody can do science and invent things and ideas.In doing science, it is often helpful to work with a team and to share findings with others. All team members should reach their own individual conclusions, however, about what the findings mean.

NGSS STANDARDS COVERED: 2-PS1-3

COMMONCORE ELA STANDARDS COVERED:

Allow students to test their designs to see how far the cars can roll down the ramp. Encourage students to ask questions that focus on the design and construction of the vehicles; describe problems they see in the design.What was most challenging? What would they do differently? 1.SL.1, 1.SL.1a, 1.SL.1b, 1.SL.1c, 1.SL.2,1.SL.3, 1.SL.5: (see above).

Give students instructions for creating and flying their “Paper Plate Skimmers” (need to be flown outside); students should be creative in their designs remembering the things they have learned in this unit; after students experiment with their “Paper Plate Skimmers” they are given the boomerangs to play with: 1.SL.5: (see above).

“Playing with Paper “ story, questions and vocabulary — 1.RL.1, 1.RL.5, 1.RF.4, 1.RF.4a, 1.L.4: (see above); 1.L.5c: Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy).

COMMON CORE MATH STANDARDS COVERED:

Vehicle Design and Testing — Mathematical Practices 1 thru 8

Place Value Blocks — 1.NBT.2, 1.NBT.2a: (see above); 1.NBT.2c: The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones).

Lesson Outline

Allow students to share their designs. Test the vehicles to see if they roll down the ramp. Limiting how far the vehicles can roll will keep the showcase from becoming a competition.

Take students outside and allow them to experiment with different designs for Paper Plate Skimmers.Share the boomerang toy with the students.

Review everything learned during this unit.

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