Not just simple machines but an entire kit on mechanics - forces, acceleration, and friction. Students store energy in a toy they make and use spring scales to explore all the relationships found in simple machines. They explore the acceleration of marbles an balls on a ramp and the effect of friction on the motion of a marble.

### Great Online Resources:

NGSS STANDARDS COVERED: 5-PS2-1

#### Lesson 1: Energy

## Lesson 1 - Energy

OBJECTIVE

Students will identify forms of energy, state that heat is produced when one form of energy is converted to another form, and create a toy that demonstrates potential and kinetic energy.

AAAS BENCHMARKS COVERED*

People can often learn about things around them by just observing those things carefully, but sometimes they can learn more by doing something to the things and noting what happens. There is no perfect design. Designs that are best in one respect (safety or ease of use, for example) may be inferior in other ways (cost or appearance). Usually some features must be sacrificed to get others. How such trade-offs are received depends upon which features are emphasized and which are down-played. Changes in speed or direction of motion are caused by forces.The greater the force is, the greater the change in motion will be. The more massive an object is, the less effect a given force will have.How fast things move differs greatly. Some things are so slow that their journey takes a long time; others move too fast for people to even see them.

NGSS STANDARDS COVERED: 4-PS3-3; 5-PS2-1

COMMON CORE ELA STANDARDS COVERED:

Energy worksheet 1 (Students to read a short text on energy and then discuss with a partner the types of energy described and write down their findings) – 5.SL.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly; 5.SL.1b: Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carryout assigned roles; 5.SL.1d: Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions; 5.RI.3: Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text; 5.RI.4: Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area; 5.RI.5: Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts; 5.RI.10: By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently; 5.RF.4: Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension;5.RF.4a: Read on-level text with purpose and understanding; 5.W.9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

Energy worksheet 2 (Contains 12 boxes regarding energy transformation that students are asked to fill in as the subject is discussed and illustrated in class ; additionally they are asked to write down the types of energy identified) – 5.SL.1, 5.SL.1b, 5.SL.1d: (see above); 5.W.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience; 5.W.7: Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic;5.W.10: Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Up to Your Potential worksheet (Where students are instructed to build a toy that stores energy after reading some text and much classroom discussion; they will then record the results) – 5.SL1: (see above); 5.SL.3:

Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence; 5.SL.4: Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace; 5.RF.4, 5.RF.4a: (see above); 5.L.6: Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although, nevertheless, similarly, moreover, in addition); 5.W.4, 5.W.7:(see above), 5.W.8: Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources; 5.W.10: (see above). Vocabulary – 5.RF.4c: Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary; 5.L.4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies; 5.L.4a: Use context(e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase; 5.L.4c: Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases; 5.L.5: Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings; 5.L.5c: Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs) to better understand each of the words.

COMMON CORE MATH STANDARDS COVERED:

Advanced Line Graph worksheet – 5.G.2: Represent real world and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation; 5.MD.2: Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2,1/4, 1/8).Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots. For example, given different measurements of liquid in identical beakers, find the amount of liquid each beaker would contain if the total amount in all the beakers were redistributed equally.

Up to Your Potential worksheet (Instructs students to graph the result of the experiment involving the energy in the toy they have created (distance traveled in inches/ number of rotations) – Mathematical Practices 1 thru 8; 5.MD.2 ; 5.G.2: (see above).

Lesson Outline

Look at Student Booklet page 1. Discuss why the phrase "Energy makes everything happen." is written over and over. Could it be important? Can students think of anything that happens without energy?

Discuss some simple examples of using energy (picking up a pencil, clapping hands).

Use the flashlight to discuss energy use and transformations. Analyze the source of the energy (battery), the conversion (current flows through the wires and bulb), the product (light), and the by-product (heat).

Ask students to stand and run in place for 30 seconds. Analyze the source of energy (food or, if you really want to get specific, the Sun since everything we eat can be traced back to plants and from them back to the Sun), the transfer of energy (our muscles use the calories we eat to be able to contract), and the by-products (noise and heat).

Discuss other situations where energy is used. Analyze the source, transfer, and by-products.

List what we get when we use energy (heat, light, sound, movement).Use paper clips to demonstrate mechanical energy being transformed into heat energy.

Develop a list of forms of energy (e.g., mechanical, chemical, heat, electrical).

Define kinetic and potential.If doing the lesson in two parts, break here.Introduce activity.

Review materials and instructions.

Allow students time to make, play with, tinker with, and gather data with their toy.

#### Lesson 2: Forces

## Lesson 2 - Forces

OBJECTIVE

Students will define, identify, and give examples and consequences of direct and indirect forces and present their findings graphically.

AAAS BENCHMARKS COVERED*

Results of similar scientific investigations seldom turn out exactly the same. Sometimes this is because of unexpected differences in the things being investigated, sometimes because of unrealized differences in the methods used or in the circumstances in which the investigation is carried out, and sometimes just because of uncertainties in observations. It is not always easy to tell which. Mathematics is the study of many kinds of patterns, including numbers and shapes and operations on them.Sometimes patterns are studied because they help to explain how the world works or how to solve practical problems, sometimes because they are interesting in themselves. Mathematical ideas can be represented concretely, graphically, and symbolically. Changes in speed or direction of motion are caused by forces. The greater the force is, the greater the change in motion will be. The more massive an object is, the less effect a given force will have.The earth’s gravity pulls any object toward it without touching it.

COMMON CORE ELA STANDARDS COVERED:

Forces worksheet 1 (Involves instructing the class to toss around a ping pong ball while talking about forces both direct (touching) and indirect (not touching) and then to fill in the boxes with what they have learned) –5.SL.1: (see above); 5.SL.1c: Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others; 5.SL.1d, 5.W.4: (see above).

Forces worksheet 2 (Has students divided into groups to further explore direct and indirect forces by constructing a ramp and using marbles to demonstrate the effect ; they are then instructed to record their findings in their student booklet) – 5.W.7, 5.W.8, 5.W.10: (see above).

Friction worksheet (Introduces students to the concept of friction as the marbles are rolled down three different surfaces; students work in teams discussing their findings and then are asked to record and graph results and present them to the class) – 5.SL.1: (see above); 5.SL.1a: Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion; 5.SL.1b: Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out as-signed roles; 5.SL.1c, 5.SL.1d: (see above); 5.SL.4: Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace; 5.SL.6: Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks,using formal English when appropriate to task and situation; 5.W.7, 5.W.8, 5.W.10: (see above).

“Force and Motion Facts” article and questions – 5.RI.1, 5.RI.3, 5.RI.4, 5.RI.10, 5.W.2, 5.W.4: (see above). Vocabulary – 5.L.4, 5.L.6: (see above).

COMMON CORE MATH STANDARDS COVERED:

Reading a Bar Graph – 5.G.2: (see above). Friction (Graphing and modeling) – Mathematical Practices 1 thru 8; 5.G.2, 5.MD.2: (see above).

Lesson Outline

Focus students'attention by tossing a ball around the room.

Review kinetic energy.

Demonstrate and discuss direct forces (forces that act directly on an object, e.g., tackling, kicking, pushing) using Student Booklet page 4.

Demonstrate and discuss indirect forces (forces that act without directly touching the object, e.g., gravity, magnetism, charge imbalance (see page 45)).

Introduce activity and equipment.

Have students work on using the indirect force of gravity to hit a marble and, because of a direct force, start another marble moving.

If the lesson is to be split in two, stop the lesson after students have finished the challenges on Student Booklet page 5.

After the activity, discuss friction as an additional direct force.

Introduce friction activity.

Assign activity and the required graph of their data.

#### Lesson 3: Motion

## Lesson 3 -Velocity and Acceleration

OBJECTIVE

Students will explore acceleration and velocity using ramps and table tennis balls.

AAAS BENCHMARKS COVERED*

Results of scientific investigations are seldom exactly the same, but if the differences are large, it is important to try to figure out why. One reason for following directions carefully and for keeping records of one’s work is to provide information on what might have caused the differences. Numbers and shapes—and operations on them—help to describe and predict things about the world around us.Measuring instruments can be used to gather accurate information for making scientific comparisons of objects and events and for designing and constructing things that will work properly. Keep records of their investigations and observations and not change the records later. Offer reasons for their findings and consider reasons suggested by others. Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers mentally, on paper, and with a calculator.

COMMON CORE ELA STANDARDS COVERED:

Velocity and Acceleration 1 & 2 worksheets (Students again use a 3 piece ramp and marbles to investigate velocity and acceleration; they are instructed to conduct and discuss a series of different trials and then to numerically record, graph, and verbally analyze their findings) – 5.SL.1, 5.SL.1b, 5.SL.1d, 5.SL.2, 5.SL.4,5.W.7, 5.W.8, 5.W.10: (see above).

COMMON CORE MATH STANDARDS COVERED:

Reading a Line Graph – 5.G.2, 5.MD.2: (see above).

Averages – 5.NBT.7: Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.

Velocity and Acceleration worksheets – Mathematical Practices 1 thru 8; 5.MD2, 5.G.2:(see above).

Lesson Outline

Set up one 3-piece ramp so that it goes straight from the bottom set of screws to the top of a flat block. It is very important to have the ramp be as straight as possible. Lay a meter stick in the ramp and adjust the clay so that the ramp is up against the meter stick for its entire length. Students will also need one table tennis ball and one marble.

Discuss the terms velocity (the rate of change of position) and acceleration (change in velocity with time).

Observe the table tennis ball going down the ramp and describe its velocity and acceleration.

Explain assignment and review how to set up the equipment. Show students how to operate the stopwatches and provide some time to practice.

If doing the lesson in two parts, break here.

Students will find the time it takes the ball to roll down the ramp.

Next, students divide the time it took the ball to go down the ramp in half and predict the location of the ball in that time.

Using the Predictive poster, students can develop predictions and testable statements.

Assign Student Booklet page 7.

#### Lesson 4: Inclined Planes

## Lesson 4 - Inclined Planes

OBJECTIVE

Students will discover the benefits and drawbacks of inclined planes.

AAAS BENCHMARKS COVERED*

Throughout all of history, people everywhere have invented and used tools. Most tools of today are different from those of the past but many are modifications of very ancient tools. Even a good design may fail. Sometimes steps can be taken ahead of time to reduce the likelihood of failure, but it cannot be entirely eliminated. The solution to one problem may create other problems. Mathematics is the study of many kinds of patterns, including numbers and shapes and operations on them. Sometimes patterns are studied because they help to explain how the world works or how to solve practical problems, sometimes because they are interesting in themselves. The earth’s gravity pulls any object toward it without touching it.

COMMON CORE ELA STANDARDS COVERED:

Inclined Planes worksheet (Students are divided into groups to conduct experiments involving force and acceleration measured by a spring scale that they must calibrate.They are then asked to record their findings;predict additional findings based on their data; and write about the results) – 5.SL.1, 5.SL.1b, 5.SL.4, 5.W.7,5.W.8, 5.W.10: (see above).“Simple Machines” article and questions – 5. RI.1, 5.RI.10, 5.RF.4, 5.RF.4a: (see above).Vocabulary Lessons 3 & 4 – 5.RF.4c, 5.L.4, 5.L.4a, 5.L.4c: (see above).

COMMON CORE MATH STANDARDS COVERED: Inclined Planes worksheet – Mathematical Practices 1 thru 8: (see above).

Lesson Outline

Review concepts and vocabulary.

Stress relationship among speed, velocity, and acceleration.Introduce spring scale, newtons, and calibration.

Remind students that the measurement must be taken while pulling the box up the ramp.

Gather data for 3 and 5 washers on ramps of 5 heights and lifting straight up.If you're doing this lesson in two parts, break after students have gathered data for 3 washers.Predict values for 4 washers.

Check predictions.

Complete Student Booklet page 9.

#### Lesson 5: Levers

## Lesson 5 - Levers

OBJECTIVE

Students will explore first class levers and their mechanical advantage.

AAAS BENCHMARKS COVERED*

Throughout all of history, people everywhere have invented and used tools. Most tools of today are different from those of the past but many are modifications of very ancient tools. Even a good design may fail. Sometimes steps can be taken ahead of time to reduce the likelihood of failure, but it cannot be entirely eliminated. The solution to one problem may create other problems. Mathematics is the study of many kinds of patterns, including numbers and shapes and operations on them. Sometimes patterns are studied because they help to explain how the world works or how to solve practical problems, sometimes because they are interesting in themselves. The earth’s gravity pulls any object toward it without touching it.

COMMON CORE ELA STANDARDS COVERED:

Levers 1 & 2 worksheets (Students are introduced to first class levers further exploring inclined planes,resistance, effort and fulcrums (pivot points) through a series of experiments again involving spring scales,calibration, and weight; they are to determine six different data points and record their findings on the chart provided; they are then instructed to analyze their findings) – 5.SL.1, 5.SL.1b, 5.SL.1d, 5.SL.2, 5.SL.4,5.W.7, 5.W.8, 5.W.10: (see above).

“Simple Machines” mini-book and questions – 5.RI.1, 5.RI.4, 5.RI.10, 5.RF.4, 5.RF.4a: (see above).

COMMON CORE MATH STANDARDS COVERED:

Levers 1 & 2 worksheets – Mathematical Practices 1 thru 8: (see above).

Lesson Outline

Discuss inclined planes from the last lesson.

Discuss and demonstrate trade-offs.Introduce levers.Demonstrate how to use levers on the Simple Machine Stands©.

Define fulcrum, resistance, and effort.

Examine chart on Student Booklet page 11.

Review dependent and independent variables.If you are doing this lesson in two parts, allow students to get a "feel"for first class levers without gathering data and then break.

Allow students to gather data on first class levers.

Assign the bottom of Student Booklet page 11.

#### Lesson 6: More Levers

## Lesson 6 - More Levers

OBJECTIVE

Students will explore the mathematical relationships of second and third class levers.

AAAS BENCHMARKS COVERED*

Throughout all of history, people everywhere have invented and used tools. Most tools of today are different from those of the past but many are modifications of very ancient tools. Even a good design may fail. Sometimes steps can be taken ahead of time to reduce the likelihood of failure, but it cannot be entirely eliminated. The solution to one problem may create other problems. Mathematics is the study of many kinds of patterns, including numbers and shapes and operations on them. Sometimes patterns are studied because they help to explain how the world works or how to solve practical problems, sometimes because they are interesting in themselves. In using mathematics, choices have to be made about what operations will give the best results. Results should always be judged by whether they make sense and are useful. The earth’s gravity pulls any object toward it without touching it.

COMMON CORE ELA STANDARDS COVERED:

Second Class and Third Class Levers worksheets (Students are asked to conduct a series of experiments involving first, second and third class levers; they are to discuss their findings; record the mathematical data they have discovered; and finally summarize their findings in writing on the bottom of their worksheets) –5.SL.1, .SL.1c, 5.SL.1d, 5.SL.2, 5.SL.3, 5.W.7, 5.W.8, 5.W.10: (see above).

Pictures of Levers and Fulcrums worksheet – 5.L.4, 5.L.4a, 5.L.4c: (see above).

COMMON CORE MATH STANDARDS COVERED:

Second Class and Third Class Levers worksheets – Mathematical Practices 1 thru 8; 5.MD.2: (see above).

Lesson Outline

This is a challenging lesson but a great time to integrate some real math with some real science. It is exciting to see the relationships between numbers developing. If you don't think your students can handle it on their own, go ahead and walk them through it If you really, truly think it is too hard for your students to even walk through, use the same format as the lesson for the first class lever to explore the second and third class levers-but please give it a try as written first—your students may surprise you!!

Discuss the findings of the previous lesson on first class levers. Discuss trade-offs.

Review that first class levers have the fulcrum in the middle. Discuss what other combinations are possible.

Explain that the classes of levers can be remembered by the acronym FRE (pronounced I ike "free"). First class levers have the Fulcrum in the middle. Second class levers have the Resistance in the middle and third class levers have the Effort in the middle.

Go over the chart on Student Booklet page 12 that students will be filling out regarding second class levers. Depending on the experience of your class, you may need to go through a number of measurements together. There is no prepared table for third class levers. You may want your students to create their own charts for third class levers or you may want students to use the format on page 12. Student Booklet page 13 is provided for data on third class levers.

Use the same equipment as the previous lesson to gather data on second and third class levers.

If you are doing this lesson in two parts, break between second and third class levers.

Depending on your class, you may want to allow them to work independently or you can walk them through the activity.

Assign Student Booklet page 14 as homework if you wish.

#### Lesson 7: Pulleys

## Lesson 7 - Pulleys

OBJECTIVE

Students will explore the mechanical advantage of pulleys and pulley systems.

AAAS BENCHMARKS COVERED*

Throughout all of history, people everywhere have invented and used tools. Most tools of today are different from those of the past but many are modifications of very ancient tools. Even a good design may fail. Sometimes steps can be taken ahead of time to reduce the likelihood of failure, but it cannot be entirely eliminated. The solution to one problem may create other problems.

Mathematics is the study of many kinds of patterns, including numbers and shapes and operations on them. Sometimes patterns are studied because they help to explain how the world works or how to solve practical problems, sometimes because they are interesting in themselves. The earth’s gravity pulls any object toward it without touching it.

COMMON CORE ELA STANDARDS COVERED:

Pulleys 1 & 2 worksheets (Students are asked to conduct a number of experiments involving pulleys, force ,resistance and effort; they are instructed to discuss real world examples of first, second and third class levers and after this review they begin their experiments with pulleys, discussing their findings, recording the data and finally summarizing patterns they have observed) – 5.SL.1, 5.SL.1c, 5.SL.1d, 5.SL.2, 5.SL.3, 5.W.4,5.W.7, 5.W.8, 5.W.10, 5.L.6: (see above).

Vocabulary Lessons 7 & 8 – 5.RF.4c, 5.L.4, 5.L.4a, 5.L.4c, 5.L.5, 5.L.5c: (see above).

COMMON CORE MATH STANDARDS COVERED:

Pulleys 1 worksheet – Mathematical Practices 1 thru 8; 5.MD.2: (see above).

Lesson Outline

Review all three classes of levers using Student Booklet page 14.

Introduce pulleys.

Review setup of equipment.

Allow students to decide how they will organize data. Encourage them to include how much the box weighs, how much force is required to lift the box, how far the box is moved, and how much cord has to be pulled to lift the box that distance.

Have students collect data, organize it, create graphs, and analyze their results.

If you're doing this lesson in two parts, break after all students have gathered data from a one pulley system.

Allow students to share results at the end of this class period or the beginning of the next.

Encourage students to try different pulley systems.

#### Lesson 8: Simple Machines in the Real World

## Lesson 8 - Simple Machines in the Real World

OBJECTIVE

Students will identify wedges and screws as variations of inclined planes, wheel and axis as a variation of the lever, and will find examples of simple machines in more complex contexts.

AAAS BENCHMARKS COVERED*

Throughout all of history, people everywhere have invented and used tools. Most tools of today are different from those of the past but many are modifications of very ancient tools. Even a good design may fail. Sometimes steps can be taken ahead of time to reduce the likelihood of failure, but it cannot be entirely eliminated. The solution to one problem may create other problems. The earth’s gravity pulls any object toward it without touching it. Clear communication is an essential part of doing science. It enables scientists to inform others about their work, expose their ideas to criticism by other scientists, and stay informed about scientific discoveries around the world. Doing science involves many different kinds of work and engages men and women of all ages and backgrounds.

COMMON CORE ELA STANDARDS COVERED:

Simple Machines in the Real World 1 & 2 worksheets (Students begin this lesson with a discussion of what they have learned about levers and inclined planes ; wedges, screws, wheels and axles are then introduced as examples of simple machines and they are instructed to conduct a series of experiments and to record and analyze their findings) – 5.SL.1, 5.SL.1c, 5.SL.1d, 5.SL.2, 5.SL.3, 5.W.4, 5.W.7, 5.W.8, 5.W.10: (see above).

Simple Machines review test – 5.W.2, 5.W.2d, 5.W.4: (see above).

“Rube Goldberg” text and questions – 5.RI.4 ; 5.RI.7 ; 5.RI.10: (see above).

COMMON CORE MATH STANDARDS COVERED:

Simple Machines experiments and analysis – Mathematical Practices 1 thru 8: (see above).

Lesson Outline

Review the simple machines that have been studied thus far (inclined planes, levers, pulleys).

Explain that different sources list different simple machines.

Discuss wedges. Give examples including the nails and hammer from the Science Corner.

Distribute 2 wedges to each group and illustrate the relationship between inclined planes and wedges.

Discuss the trade-offs.

Discuss whether the students think wedges should be considered a separate simple machine.

Discuss screws.

Distribute Inclined Plane and Screws sheets. Show the relationship between inclined planes and screws. Discuss the trade-offs.

Discuss whether the students think screws should be considered a separate simple machine.

Review the Science Corner Screwdriver Challenge.

Discuss the wheel and axle.Have groups work together to complete Student Booklet pages 16 and 17.

Students who finish early can read about Rube Goldberg on Student Booklet page 18, complete page 18, and put together the Rube Goldberg puzzles.

Discuss the answers students have on Student Booklet page 17. Record them on the Simple Machines in the Real World Poster.

Discuss the Rube Goldberg machines shown in the puzzles.

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